Argumentative Papers — June 1, 2016
Argumentative Papers —

Argumentative Papers

The Main Ingredients of an Argumentative Paper

The argumentative paper involves five main ingredients: 1) thesis [claim, proposition, main idea]; 2) context [background, framework, setting]; 3) reasons [support, evidence]; 4) counter-arguments [objections, contrary considerations]; and 5) responses [refutations, answers to objections]. These ingredients can be put together or organized in a good many different ways. In a very short, very simple argumentative paper, the last two may not appear at all; so the absolute minimum ingredients are: thesis, context, and supporting reasons; and the thesis should appear prior to the reasons (it will also usually be restated after the reasons). As you plan and write your argumentative paper, keep these things circulating in your head!
The following table includes some of the basic guidelines a writer should follow when writing an argumentative paper.

plagiarism — May 10, 2016
student research and writing services —
student research and writing services —
BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT — November 10, 2015


Business Environment


The aims of this assignment are to measure the outcome of students’ learning in terms of knowledge acquired, understanding developed and skills or abilities gained in relation to achieve the learning outcomes.
A case study has been provided to provide a general contextual framework to the assignment.
The assignment comprise of an essay to be written under several broad topics as the main requirements of the assignment. Relevant areas for discussion have also been identified under each broad topic.

The beginning of each section should outline a general introduction to the broad topic with the objective of providing a contextual background to the areas of discussion to follow.
Relevant references and academic quotes and the use of case examples are required as evidence of broader reading and research.

Specification of Assessment
Case Study

Social and other opportunities and constraints
Opportunities in the business environment are those factors that provide possibilities for a business to expand so as to make more sales and profits. Constraints are those factors that limit the ability to grow, and reduce sales and profit potential.

A useful way of assessing opportunities and constraints is to carry out what is known as a SWOT analysis. Strengths and weaknesses are internal to an organisation. Typically they relate to the resources of the organisation, and its structure and leadership, as well as the extent of its marketing.

Market focused organisations are strong because they know what their customers want. Opportunities and threats (constraints) exist in the external environment. Opportunities relate to the market, to the development of new technologies, and external factors such as government policies. Threats relate to what the competition is doing as well as legal and other constraints.

A good example of external opportunities and constraints is that of the building industry in the UK today. The government is encouraging developers to build on ‘brownfield’ as opposed to ‘greenfield’ sites. The constraint therefore is not being able to develop on greenfield sites while the opportunity is that of developing on brown field land.

The best way of thinking about constraints and opportunities is to realise that good businesses will seek to turn constraint into opportunities, while at the same time building on existing opportunities. Organisations should use their strengths such as having a good reputation, and experience in a particular field or segment of the market coupled with good marketing and resources, to build competitive advantage.

Planned, Market and Mixed economies

Three main sets of decisions need to be made by the economic system – what to produce, how to produce, and how to share out the product of the economy. A planned economy is one in which a central planning agency such as the government determines the 3 economic decisions outlined above. A market economy is one in which these decisions are determined by buyers and sellers interacting with each other without government interference.

A mixed economy includes elements of both the planned and the market economies. Those (and there are few of these left today) that favour the centrally planned economy argue that the government (central planners) are best placed to meet the needs of all the people of a particular society. Those in favour of the free market argue that central planning wastes resources and that the market makes sure that consumers get what they want producing, while producers supply it at a profit.

The reality is that most societies operate some form of mixed economy. In this country we have a mixed economy. Most decisions are made by the market – e.g. when you buy goods in supermarket you vote with your money for the goods that you want to buy. However, some decisions are made by the government e.g. those relating to road building, school and hospital construction, the supply of medicines in hospital etc. In the UK the emphasis is on letting the market make most decisions because of its high level of efficiency in responding to customer preferences. However, some decisions must be made by the government on behalf of society e.g. decisions about military spending, and public education. The market economy refers to the system whereby what is produced and how is determined by buyers and sellers engaging in free exchanges for the sale and purchase of goods.

How businesses are affected by government policy

A key area of government economic policy is the role that the government gives to the state in the economy. Between 1945 and 1979 the government increasingly interfered in the economy by creating state run industries which usually took the form of public corporations. However, from 1979 onwards we saw an era of privatisation in which industries were sold off to private shareholders to create a more competitive business environment.

Taxation policy affects business costs. For example, a rise in corporation tax (on business profits) has the same effect as an increase in costs. Businesses can pass some of this tax on to consumers in higher prices, but it will also affect the bottom line. Other business taxes are environmental taxes (e.g. landfill tax), and VAT (value added tax). VAT is actually passed down the line to the final consumer but the administration of the VAT system is a cost for business.

Another area of economic policy relates to interest rates. In this country the level of interest rates is determined by a government appointed group – the Monetary Policy Committee which meets every month. A rise in interest rates raises the costs to business of borrowing money, and also causes consumers to reduce expenditure (leading to a fall in business sales).

Government spending policy also affects business. For example, if the government spends more on schools, this will increase the income of businesses that supply schools with books, equipment etc.
Government also provides subsidies for some business activity – e.g. an employment subsidy to take on the long-term unemployed.

Legal changes

The government of the day regularly changes laws in line with its political policies. As a result businesses are continually having to respond to changes in the legal framework.

Examples of legal changes include:
i. The creation of a National Minimum Wage which has recently been extended to under-18’s.

ii. The requirement for businesses to cater for disabled people, by building ramps into offices, shops etc.

iii. Providing increasingly tighter protection for consumers to protect them against unscrupulous business practice.

iv. Creating tighter rules on what constitutes fair competition between businesses.

Today British business is increasingly affected by European Union (EU) regulations and directives as well as national laws and requirements

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Using the case study above and relevant theories and literature, write an essay comprised of the following broad topics/sub-sections:

Understand the organisational purposes of businesses

1.1) Identify the purposes of the following different types of organization; Public company, private company, voluntary organization, cooperatives and charitable organsations. (P1)

1.2) Describe the extent to which an organisation meets the objectives of different stakeholders (P2)

1.3) Explain the responsibilities of an organisation and strategies employed to meet them (P3)

1.4) As a business analyst apply strategies and incorporate in your response in P1/P2/P3 application of the concept using real business organization in all the criteria Follow P1/P2/P3

Understand the nature of the national environment in which businesses operate

2.1) Explain how economic systems attempt to allocate resources effectively (P4)

2.2) Assess the impact of fiscal and monetary policy on business organisations and their activities (P5)

2.3) Evaluate the impact of competition policy and other regulatory mechanisms on the activities of a selected organization. (P6)

2.4) Apply any appropriate methods/techniques Government policy for the organization Follow P6

Understand the behaviour of organisations in their market environment

3.1) Explain how market structures determine the pricing and output decisions of businesses. (P7)

3.2) Illustrate the way in which market forces shape organisational responses using a range of examples

3.3) Judge how the business and cultural environments shape the behaviour of a selected organization (P9)

3.4) Explain UK’s Present and communicate appropriate market situation and determine which structure could be help . Follow P7

3.5) As you are an Business analyst considering the alternatives; appropriateness; feasibility; desirability take responsibility for managing and organizing activities Follow P9

Be able to assess the significance of the global factors that shape national business activities

4.1) Discuss the significance of international trade to UK business organizations (P10)

4.2) Analyse the impact of global factors on UK business organizations (P11)

4.3) Evaluate the impact of policies of the European Union on UK business organizations (P12)
4.4) Recommends from your position to Demonstrate convergent/lateral/creative thinking for UK Follow P10

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4.5)Use critical reflection to evaluate own work and justify valid conclusions in terms of the case on UK Business Economy(D1)

Academic writing style — June 17, 2015

Academic writing style

There’s no great mystique about an “academic writing style”. The most important thing is to keep your writing clear and concise and make sure that you get your ideas over in a comprehensible form. It’s clear expression of these ideas that will impress your tutor, not a string of long, inappropriate words found in your dictionary. A wide range of vocabulary is of course important, but you must use the right word, and shorter ones are often better than longer ones.
The most important thing to remember is generally to try to avoid everyday, informal language, especially colloquial expressions and slang. Also, spoken language is naturally full of hesitations, repetitions, grammatical errors and unfinished ideas. In your writing, however, structure is much more important: sentences should be complete and ideas arranged into paragraphs or sections, and you should aim for perfection in your grammar and spelling. However, especially if English is not your first language, don’t become too obsessed with this, to the point perhaps of copying word for word from your sources. What’s important is that you clearly show your understanding of the subject and your ability to manipulate information to answer a specific question or complete a specific task, and as long as any grammar errors you make don’t impede this, then it shouldn’t be a problem.

Here are a few general points to remember when you are writing your assignments. As well as using appropriate language and aiming for 100% accuracy in your grammar and vocabulary, you should also remember that you’re writing for someone else, and hence the importance of punctuation, sentences, paragraphs and overall structure, all of which help the reader.


don’t (do not!) use contractions (eg it’s, he’ll, it’d etc): always use the full form (it is/has, he will, it would/had).
don’t use colloquial language or slang (eg kid, a lot of/lots of, cool)
always write as concisely as you can, with no irrelevant material or “waffle”.
generally avoid “phrasal verbs” (e.g. get off, get away with, put in etc): instead, use one word equivalents.
avoid common but vague words and phrases such as get, nice, thing. Your writing needs to be more precise.
avoid overuse of brackets; don’t use exclamation marks or dashes; avoid direct questions; don’t use “etc”.

always use capital letters appropriately and never use the type of language used in texting!

See the practice exercises at the end of the guide.


make sure you write in complete sentences (see Guide 1.34).
divide your writing up into paragraphs (see Guide 1.35).
use connecting words and phrases to make your writing explicit and easy to follow (see Guide 1.39).
check your grammar and spelling carefully (see Guide 1.42).


avoid too much personal language (I, my, we etc). Some tutors prefer you to avoid it completely. Never use emotive     language; be objective rather than subjective.(See Guide 1.22).
avoid being too dogmatic and making sweeping generalisations. It is usually best to use
some sort of “hedging” language (see below) and to qualify statements that you make.
you should consistently use evidence from your source reading to back up what you are saying and reference this    correctly.
avoid sexist language, such as chairman, mankind. Don’t refer to “the doctor” as he; instead, make the subject    plural and refer to them as they. Avoid he/she, herself/himself etc.
use nominalisation; that is, try to write noun-based phrases rather that verb-based ones.
For example, instead of
Crime was increasing rapidly and the police were becoming concerned.
The rapid increase in crime was causing concern among the police.

In general, academic writing tends to be fairly dense, with relatively long sentences and
wide use of subordinate clauses. Remember, however, that your main aim is clarity, so
don’t be too ambitious, particularly when you’re starting to write.


In order to put some distance between what you’re writing and yourself as writer, to be cautious rather than assertive, you should:

avoid overuse of first person pronouns (I, we, my, our)
use impersonal subjects instead (It is believed that …, it can be argued that …)
use passive verbs to avoid stating the ‘doer’ (Tests have been conducted)
use verbs (often with it as subject) such as imagine, suggest, claim, suppose
use ‘attitudinal signals’ such as apparently, arguably, ideally, strangely, unexpectedly.
These words allow you to hint at your attitude to something without using personal language.
use verbs such as would, could, may, might which ‘soften’ what you’re saying.
use qualifying adverbs such as some, several, a minority of, a few, many to avoid making overgeneralisations.

plagiarism —


Definition of Plagiarism

Plagiarism is a form of academic misconduct. Minor academic misconduct is defined to occur where the academic misconduct is manifest in less than five percent of a student’s response to an assessment item and where the academic misconduct is the student’s first offence. All other academic misconduct is defined to be major academic misconduct and is regarded seriously by the University.

What are the penalties?

The University Regulations on Academic Misconduct specify a range of penalties, which may be imposed when students have plagiarised, colluded or cheated in any other way.

For minor misconduct, the student’s name will be recorded in the Faculty Misconduct Register and they may face one or more the following:

  • be issued with a formal warning
  • have marks reduced by up to 20 percent of the marks available for that assessment item
  • be required to resubmit the piece of assessment by a specified date
  • be required to undertake additional, equivalent assessment by a specified date.

For major misconduct the student may be:

  • required to undertake additional assessment in the course
  • failed in the piece of assessment
  • awarded a grade of Fail for the course
  • withdrawn from the course with academic penalty
  • excluded from the course or the program for a specified period of time and/or
  • disciplined in accordance with Statute No.3 (Student Discipline) 1999.